Monarch butterflies use magnetic compass to migrate

New research has shown that monarch butterflies can follow the Earth’s magnetic field to make their annual migration.

Each autumn, millions of monarch butterflies make an epic journey from Canada to the Michoacan mountains in Mexico. Despite making this 2500 mile journey for the first and only time, the butterflies find their way to the same place as earlier generations. Researchers have long known that the butterflies follow the sun to head south, but this does not explain how the butterflies can still find their way on overcast days. This has led to suspicion that the butterflies could be using an inbuilt magnetic compass, like other migratory species.

The small but mighty monarch butterflies fly 2500 miles across North America

The small but mighty monarch butterfly flies 2500 miles across North America

A new experiment, published in Nature Communications, is the first to show convincing evidence of the butterflies relying on a magnetic field to choose direction. During the 2012 and 2013 autumn migration seasons, researchers placed butterflies in a flight simulator surrounded by magnets. As expected, the butterflies headed ‘south’, following the inclination of the magnetic field. When the researchers flipped the inclination of the magnetic field, the butterflies started to fly in the opposite direction.

Monarch butterflies use a range of techniques for finding their way across the continent

Crucially, this internal compass is dependent on violet light, which was not considered in past experiments. Previous attempts to study the butterflies have used light sources or filters that may not let through enough violet light. In those studies, the researchers could not see any response from the butterflies when they altered the magnetic field.

This light dependence strongly suggests that the butterflies use the same mechanism as fruit flies and European robins for detecting magnetic fields. This relies on proteins known as cryptochromes, which are present in the antennae or eyes. When these proteins are hit by light, they trigger a chain reaction that is influenced by weak magnetic fields.

Last month, a different group of scientists showed that even extremely weak radio waves can disrupt the magnetic compass of European robins. The strengths and frequencies of the electromagnetic noise studied were the equivalent of being within five kilometres of an AM radio station. If this can affect the birds’ ability to migrate, it could also have implications for the monarch butterfly and other migratory species.

Magnetic trigger for cancer death

A team of researchers from Seoul have developed a magnetically-controlled nanoparticle that can kill cancer cells.

One of the key challenges in the fight against cancer is that potential treatments can often be worse than the disease. These treatments are so destructive that it takes a lot of effort to find one that will kill the cancer before it kills the patient. This means that treatments need to be as selective and controllable as possible.

The nanoparticle can be controlled by simply turning a magnetic field on and off. This means that its effects can be aimed at a specific area (if you have a focused magnetic field) and for a specific length of time. This level of targeting would reduce the severity of side-effects, allowing patients to receive stronger doses.

The zinc-doped iron oxide nanoparticle is attached to an antibody which binds tightly to death receptor 4, DR4. There are many copies of DR4 on the surface of the cancer cell and the nanoparticles can bind to them all, without any effect. When a magnetic field is applied, the nanoparticles move towards one another across the cell surface. This causes the DR4s to come together to form a complex. This is known as death-inducing signalling complex and it starts the chain reaction of events leading to apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Antibodies bind very specifically to their target protein, making them very useful in medicine

This mechanism is actually a mimic of the one used by the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL has been investigated as a cancer treatment, however it degrades easily, a problem that is unlikely to affect the nanoparticles.

The paper, published in Nature Materials, looks at the effect on cancer cells in vitro and the effects on zebrafish. This research is still very much in the early stages and it will be quite some time before its effects on cancer in humans can be tested. However, it is a fine example of the novel ways that scientists are trying to fight cancer. It is the trickiest disease there is, and it will take a lot of ingenuity to tackle it.

Bird’s Eye View: How to see magnetic fields

The ancient Greeks, like many people since, were confounded and fascinated by the migration of birds. Homer recognised that cranes “flee the winter and the terrible rains and fly off to the world’s end”. Meanwhile, Aristotle wrongly asserted that each year summer redstarts would transform into robins come winter, as the two species were never seen in Greece together. In modern times, we’ve come to appreciate the vast distances covered by migratory animals and the remarkable precision with which they make the journey. How is this feat achieved?

It is known that animals use sounds, landmarks or even smells to guide and navigate their way across continents. But the most intriguing and least understood navigation ability is magnetoreception: the detection of the Earth’s magnetic field through an internal, biological compass. This ability has been seen in a variety of animals, from ants to crocodiles. In fact, wildlife rangers in Florida resorted to taping magnets to the heads of crocodiles to prevent them from finding their way back after being relocated. Magnetoreception has even been suggested in the humble cow, after researchers using Google Earth accidentally discovered that cows tend to line up with the Earth’s magnetic field.

Magnetoreception was first observed in captive robins in 1957. In autumn, when it was time for them to migrate from Frankfurt to Spain, they kept flying southwest in their cage. This happened even though the room was isolated from any outside visual stimuli with which the robins could orientate themselves. This led to the idea that robins might use an internal magnetic compass to migrate. Many studies have been conducted since, but controversy still rages over the exact underlying mechanism of magnetoreception.

Robin in the winter

Robins can find their way with only the Earth’s magnetic field to guide them, but how do they achieve this?
Photo credit: Christine Matthews

Over fifty animal species have been found to use an internal magnetic compass so far, and several different mechanisms have been proposed and observed. The most established mechanism relies on the presence of small crystals of magnetite, a naturally magnetic mineral, in either the nose or the beak, surrounded by receptor nerves. Magnetite has been found in many animals, including humans, where it could be used to sense the magnetic field of the Earth and create a magnetic field map for migration. However, in experiments on birds where this magnetite receptor was deliberately disrupted by anaesthetic or a strong magnetic pulse, the birds could still orientate themselves along the magnetic field. This suggests that there is an alternative mechanism at work. Even more intriguingly, this alternative mechanism only works when there is light present, and didn’t appear to be influenced by reversing the direction of the field.

In 1978, Klaus Schulten suggested a mechanism for this type of magnetoreception, known as the radical pair mechanism. This proposes that there is a light-activated reaction in the bird’s eye that is affected by magnetism. By detecting the rate of the reaction, birds can sense the strength and alignment of Earth’s magnetic field. The problem with this idea is that the Earth’s magnetic field is incredibly weak, and so its influence on a normal reaction is a million times less than the energies involved in a normal chemical reaction. How could it possibly have a detectable effect?

The secret to detecting the magnetic field lies in generating a pair of radicals, which are molecules with unpaired electrons that interact strongly with magnetic fields. Creating these radicals requires a burst of energy, as provided when the molecules are exposed to light. Within a suitable molecule or protein, two radicals can form what is known as a ‘spin-correlated pair’ that exists in two different states. Conversion between these two states is affected by a magnetic field, and the rate of conversion can be monitored through the concentration of the radicals. In this way, a weak magnetic field can become detectable by cells in an organism.

The radical pair mechanism fits with the observations that cannot be reconciled with magnetite receptors—it is both dependent on the presence of light and unresponsive to the polarity of the field. Experimental evidence was lacking in 1978 when Schulten proposed the mechanism, so the idea received little attention for twenty years.

In 2000, a research group from Illinois suggested that proteins known as cryptochromes may be behind this source of magnetoreception. Cryptochrome proteins are found in the eye of robins, and absorb blue light to start a radical reaction—the perfect candidate to generate biologically detectable spin-correlated radical pairs. This led to renewed interest in the area, including the development of a proof-of-principle artificial magnetoreceptor system by a team of researchers at Oxford University. This was the first man-made chemical compass; the first artificial chemical system sufficiently sensitive to detect the Earth’s weak magnetic field on the planet’s surface.

Cryptochrome protein with a flavin radical initiator

Cryptochrome proteins are found in many creatures and absorb blue light through a co-factor known as FAD (shown in yellow)

The contribution of cryptochrome and the radical pair mechanism to magnetoreception in animals is still being investigated. Despite initial scepticism, evidence from model systems and computational work has shown that this mechanism is feasible for detecting magnetism. Cryptochromes are primarily responsible for maintaining circadian rhythms in many animals, including humans. Like many proteins throughout evolution, cryptochromes have found a new role in a different part of the body. From their presence in the eye, it has even been suggested that robins could sense the results of the radical reaction along the optic nerve and actually ‘see’ the magnetic field.

With growing evidence of weak magnetic fields affecting biological processes, there is increasing interest in how they might affect us. Numerous studies have shown a significant correlation between proximity to high-voltage power lines—which carry a low-frequency magnetic field­­—and increased rates of childhood leukaemia. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified extremely low-frequency magnetic fields as a possible carcinogen. Yet several attempts to demonstrate magnetic field induced carcinogenesis or tumour promotion in cells have failed, so this issue is still surrounded by uncertainty.

Perhaps in years to come our suspicions of magnetic fields transforming healthy cells into cancerous ones might be viewed just as fanciful as Aristotle’s redstarts to robins hypothesis. While we cannot be sure yet that power lines cause cancer, further analysis of Google Earth has shown that they can certainly disrupt the ability of cows to line up with the Earth’s magnetic field—tricking them into aligning with the magnetic field of the power line instead.